Thursday, June 03, 2004

A Brief History of Iraq

From: Shokai
Sent: Thu 6/3/2004 10:07 AM
Subject: Re: Got a minute? If so, please read.

Thanks for the replies, L. Yes, I did get the first message, and sorry I didn't reply earlier. I figured since you were out of town for the week, I could take my time in answering. However, one initial response I had to your reply was that although I appreciated your three points of clarification very much (they did help), I was not asking you to account for yourself. You don't have to explain yourself to me - I have to stop trying to read importance into things that simply aren't. Also, I think it would be sad if we went to a "your day" and "my day" arrangement at the zendo. We're not feuding, are we?

I still would like the opportunity to spend some time with you when you get back - to talk, to catch up on things, and to try to "normalize" the situation a little bit. Drop me a line or give me a call when you get back, okay?

Enjoy Miami. I hope you have a great weekend.


From: L.
Sent: Thu 6/3/2004 11:04 AM
Subject: Re: Got a minute? If so, please read.

Thanks for the response Shokai - I appreciate it.

I know you weren't asking me to account for my time, whereabouts, etc...but I also thought that if I did explain my movements, it might give you a little relief (that was my only motive).

I agree I think we can do better than my day your day...but I offered it just for the sake of showing some willingness to coordinate an agreement.

Would be happy to have coffee with you when I get back (though - like I said I made a million arrangements!! But I am sure we'll work something out - just don't want you to think I am avoiding you if I start "hmmmming" over calendars!!)

Take care

You are a great person

From: Shokai
Sent: Thu 6/3/2004 11:44 AM
Subject: Re: Got a minute? If so, please read.

Good. I was hoping that your explanation was provided out of compassion for my confusion and suffering, and as I said, it did help. Thank you.

I understand your schedule is busy, so I will rely on you to let me know when a good time to meet would be - I don't want to keep asking and keep getting shot down. So let me know after you get back, and I recognize that it might be a couple weeks. I'm patient.

"Analogies (to Iraq) with the era of Vietnam and Watergate might have been easy to wave away for those inclined to trust a Bush before a Kennedy. . . Quite a different historical analogy prevails for some Iraqis: the simultaneous, even coordinated, uprising of the Shia and the Sunnis against British forces in 1920, when the League of Nations established the Iraqi state. After three months of fighting, the British prevailed - in the short term. They preserved their imperial perogatives until 1932 and didn't leave until 1958. History is often propelled by violent minorities, and an enraged Iraqi minority, including both Sunnis and Shia, now appears to view the Americans in Iraq as the British of the nineteen-twenties - heavily armed but on the losing side of history."
- David Remnick

In 1920, Iraq was recognized by the peace treaty with Turkey as an independent state under British mandate. During 1920, Great Britain was obliged to use military force to supress disorders, but by 1921 peace was established and Emir Faisal was elected king. Turkish nationalists began to organize raids on the northern frontier in September 1921. A treaty was made with Great Britain and a constitution was adopted. In 1927, a new treaty was made with Great Britain by which independence was recognized and Great Britain promised to urge the admission of Iraq to the League of Nations as an independent state. This was accomplished in 1932.

However, in 1928, the Iraqi government cooperated with the British in sending military forces against the Wahabi tribesmen who had attacked Iraqi frontier tribes. On August 6, 1933, open warfare broke out between the Iraqi army and several hundred Assyrian invaders, and hundreds of Assyrians were reported massacred in northern Iraq. King Faisal died in Switzerland on September 8, 1933, and the Crown Prince was proclaimed King Ghazi. The cabinet initially pledged continued allegiance with Great Britain, but later resigned as King Ghazi refused general elections.

- adapted from "A Reference History of the World, From the Earliest Times to the Present," 1934, Albert Bushnell Hart, LL.D., Emeritus Professor of Government, Harvard University.

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